spartina alterniflora loisel

Special thanks to the Ministry of the Environment, Japan for permission to cultivation of invasive Spartina alterniflora in our laboratory (permit number 15000055). 18 (5), 1725–1737. 94 (3), 197–204. Figure 4 Population structures based on the microsatellite mutation among the genes sampled from Spartina alterniflora populations in Japan using Bayesian estimation. Simultaneously, it is also important that S. alterniflora is detected and eliminated at an early invasion stage in order to minimize its invasion. In addition, each group was practically unmixed with any other group. The base sequence of the trnT–trnL obtained in this study was compared with the existing 42 haplotypes in S. alterniflora (accession numbers AY927278–AY927299 and DQ486839–DQ486858) (Blum et al., 2007) in order to determine its haplotype. Lowe, A., Harris, S., Ashton, P. (2004). Invasion Biology (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press). 100 of the world"s worst invasive alien species (Auckland, NZ: IUCN-ISSG). Spartina stricta var. Fragment analysis was conducted by Macrogen (Seoul, South Korea). Ecol. (cordgrass) (Bortolus et al., 2019) greatly alter brackish and estuarine salt marsh environments via changes in the sediment properties of the tidal flats with growth, resulting in its subsequent further population expansion (e.g., Howes and Teal, 1994; Neira et al., 2005). 34 (12), 2055–2069. Improving tolerance to salinity in field crops is globally important because a majority of the world population relies on salt-sensitive crops such as rice, corn, and wheat for their daily calories. (2007), who indicated that samples should be collected from colonies that are at least about 2.5 m apart from each other (Supplementary Table 1). Threat status Europe: Not evaluated (IUCN) The EUNIS species component has very limited information about this species. Alaska Spartina Prevention, Detection and Response Plan (Juneau, AK: National Marine Fisheries Service Alaska Region). 14 (1), 189–194. The grass can hinder water circulation and drainage or block boating channels. Acad. 2nd edn (Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing). Spartina alterniflora, a native species at the east coast of North America, is currently the focus of increasing management concern due to its rapid expansion in coastal China.To better understand the plant traits associated with the success of invasion, we examined the genetic variation and the possible existence and distribution of ecotype hybrids and ecotype mixtures of the species in China. Ann. Groups A, B, and D consisting of a single haplotype are shown in dark grey, black and light grey, respectively. 11:556039. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2020.556039. Eight monosaccharides were found to be released from both tall and short forms of Spartina alterniflora during tidal submergence including: 2-d ribose, rhamnose, ribose, mannose, arabinose, fructose, galactose and xylose. Spartina alterniflora Loisel. The coverage of S. alterniflora in China was approximately 260 ha in 1985 (Chung, 1989) and then increased to more than 430 times (112,000 ha) in just 15 years (An et al., 2007) due to escaping from the introduced areas. A. (1985). GenAlEx 6.5: genetic analysis in Excel. As mentioned above, trade with China is extremely large. Notes 4 (1), 39–42. Status: Native, OBL (DEP), OBL (NWPL) Specimen: View details of USF Herbarium specimens (2008). 21 (11), 1267–1283. Haplotype C4 has been identified as widespread in the Atlantic coast of the U.S., especially around the Florida Peninsula. Here, the distribution and structure of the genetic variation of S. alterniflora in Japan were examined using chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) and microsatellite genotyping analyses for clarifying its invasion route and process. Sci. Populations of S. alterniflora in the Grays Harbor, Washington (haplotype B) and Taiwan (haplotype C4), which had only a single haplotype as well as Japan (Figure 2), were unintentionally and secondarily introduced from the Willapa Bay, Washington (the Pacific coast of the U.S.) (Civille et al., 2005) and the vicinity of Fujian (China) (Lin et al., 2015), respectively. Also, Blum et al. Scudder, G. G. E., Reveal, J. L. (Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie–Mellon University), 351–363. Goudet, J. (2009). (2009). (1991). However, the FIS values of samples from the Umeda River (FIS = 0.01) did not deviate from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (Table 1). Eng. “Ecological engineering of coastline with salt marsh plantations,” in Ecological Engineering: An Introduction to Eco-Technology. 68 (1), 6–9. The extent to which Spartina alterniflora Loisel. 60(2): 77-83, Svenska kärlväxtnamn (2011) Databas levererad av Thomas Karlsson 2011-06-16. Indeed, values of AR in Japanese S. alterniflora were very low in comparison to those in the U.S. and China populations, with significant excessive homozygosity detected in three mutation models. In Aichi Prefecture, 27 samples (i.e., one individual per colony) were collected from multiple colonies along and around the Umeda River (N34° 42′, E 137° 18′) facing the Mikawa Bay. Family: POACEAE: Species: Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Plant Symbol = SPAL. In Kumamoto Prefecture, 20 and 19 S. alterniflora samples were randomly collected from multiple colonies in the Tsuboi River (N 32° 46′, E 130° 37′) facing the Ariake Sea (northern Kumamoto) and the Oono River (N32° 37′, E 130° 39′) facing the Yatsushiro Sea (southern Kumamoto), respectively. Invasive Plant Sci. doi: 10.2166/aqua.2001.0011, McCauley, D. E., Smith, R. A., Lisenby, J. D., Hsieh, C. (2003). Res. Monospecific stands grow in low intertidal areas. Projects: China, IPCN, New World Grasses, PAPGI Common Names: hu hua mi cao No References available Smooth cordgrass (English, United States) Hitchcock, A. Low genetic diversity contrasts with high phenotypic variability in heptaploid Spartina densiflora populations invading the Pacific coast of North America. The temperature conditions of Blum et al. released by the USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Golden Meadow Plant Materials Center in 1989. Smooth Cord-grass in English Spartine à feuilles alternes in French borraza in Spanish hu hua mi cao in language. Oxygen loss from Spartina alterniflora and its relationship to salt marsh oxygen balance. For example, Bossdorf et al. Nevertheless, it suggests that only one S. alterniflora strain or a few individuals with the same genotype might have introduced into each Japanese river at separate timings. Gard. Although S. alterniflora populations in the Shirakawa and Tsuboi Rivers were placed in the same position, those in the Oono and Umeda Rivers were clearly separated along Axis 1 (Figure 3), suggesting that there were at least three S. alterniflora local populations in Japan. Based on the microsatellite analysis, individuals which had an exact genotype match were considered as “clones” and then were excluded from the analyses. Distrib. Hubbard . In addition, the genetic characterization of a population is largely associated with the ability of distribution expansion (Lee, 2002). RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Transcriptome analysis of smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora Loisel), a monocot halophyte, reveals candidate genes involved in its adaptation to salinity Renesh Bedre1†, Venkata Ramanarao Mangu1†, Subodh Srivastava2, Luis Eduardo Sanchez1,3 and Niranjan Baisakh1* Abstract Background: Soil salinity affects growth and yield of crop plants. J. Integr. The STRUCTURE analysis indicated that the studied populations were divided into distinct genetic clusters. (2001). in the mangrove ecosystems of China was reduced using Sonneratia apetala Buch.-Ham. From these facts, we cannot deny the possibility that S. alterniflora was introduced unintentionally into Japan through the importation of cultured shellfishes. Uses . Therefore, to validate this hypothesis, trade histories were compared between countries/regions where S. alterniflora has grown naturally (the United States, the East Asian countries) and Japan (Aichi and Kumamoto Prefectures). 90 (1), 67–76. Ketsudan Kagaku 4, 33–42. Weed Res. All names of the haplotypes obtained in this study were assigned according to the method of Blum et al. The authors also wish to thank Moe Nakagawa, Ryu Ikeda, Kota Kohara and Yoshinori Taruma (Kindai University) for helping with S. alterniflora sampling. Luikart, G., Sherwin, W. B., Steele, B. M., Allendorf, F. W. (1998a). B., Ainouche, M. L., Ayres, D., Bertness, M. D., et al. J. Nanjing Univ. 35 (4), 444.452. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2008.05.020, Wang, X. Y., Shen, D. W., Jiao, J., Xu, N. N., Yu, S., Zhou, X. F., et al. Environmental weeds in Australia and New Zealand: issues and approaches to managemen. (S. alterniflora) has reduced soil bulk density (BD), the mechanisms that underpin this response are still unclear. The observed (HO) and expected (HE) values for heterozygosity were calculated using GenAlEx ver. Distortion of allele frequency distributions provides a test for recent population bottlenecks. Microsatellite analysis also showed a loss of genetic diversity in Japanese S. alterniflora populations (allelic richness (AR) = 1.20–1.39) compared with that in its native region (AR = 4.58–4.59), suggesting a founder effect on S. alterniflora that might have occurred after invasion of the species into Japan. doi: 10.1111/mec.15192. Hortus Northwest 6, 9–12, 38-40. It is suggested that although these individuals have actually grown via seed propagation (i.e., sexual reproduction), they may be considered as clones with exactly the same genotype due to the extreme homozygosity. Genetic diversity, population structure, and genetic relatedness of native and non–native populations of Spartina alterniflora (Poaceae, Chloridoideae). Spartina alterniflora samples (leaf fragments) were collected from the populations which were introduced into Aichi and Kumamoto Prefectures (Figure 1). Here, we studied the effects of invasion and ecological replacement using S. apetala on soil organic carbon fractions and stock on Qi’ao Island. Impacts of an alien species (Spartina alterniflora) on the macrobenthos community of Jiangsu coastal inter-tidal ecosystem. Introduction to conservation genetics (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge university press). Austral Ecol. Tests for deviation from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) were also performed using FSTAT ver. Glucose was not detected in the leachate of either growth form. Evolutionary genetics of invasive species. Microsatellite analysis was conducted using 11 microsatellite markers (SPR1, SPR2, SPR3, SPR4, SPR5, SPR6, SPR7, SPR8, SPR9, SPR10, SPR11), developed by Blum et al. |, https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2020.556039/full#supplementary-material, http://www2.unil.ch/popgen/softwares/fstat.htm, https://www.env.go.jp/nature/intro/2outline/files/siteisyu_list_e.pdf, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). However, the degree of genetic diversity and differentiation of introduced populations obviously varies for each invasion event (e.g., Amsellem et al., 2000; McCauley et al., 2003; Provan et al., 2005). Here, the genetic structure of invasive S. alterniflora in Japan and its origin were assessed by analyzing the degree of genetic diversity and genetic mixing in Japanese populations, using chloroplast and nuclear molecular markers. doi: 10.6165/tai.2009.54(2).168. 6.0 was used for competitive multiple sequence alignment (MSA) (Tamura et al., 2013). ‘Vermilion’ Smooth cordgrass Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Tamaoki, M., Takizaki, Y. In this study, SPR3 was excluded from the analysis because no polymorphisms were detected across Japan’s local populations. (2007). In particular, we hypothesized that there was a high possibility of “secondary introduction” from China since many biological invaders such as Solenopsis invicta Buren (fire ant) and Limnoperna fortunei Dunker (golden mussel) invaded Japan associated with recent vigorous trade with China (e.g., Magara et al., 2001; Murakami, 2018). 40 (2), 212–225. The value of g indicates the rate of the individuals with duplicate clones removed in each local population. Taxon Concept NZOR Concept Id 230e3f28-0b47-4929-8c42-d914cac3a122 According to Howell, C. 2008: Consolidated list of environmental weeds in New Zealand. There are some studies that compared the genetic variation of S. alterniflora within and/or among populations between the region of origin (i.e. alterniflora (Loisel.) common cordgrass . J. Appl. (2007). Received: 27 April 2020; Accepted: 18 August 2020;Published: 07 September 2020. To compare the degree of genetic diversity of S. alterniflora in Japan with that in the previous studies (Blum et al., 2007; Bernik et al., 2016), the polymorphic locus rate (P), genotype diversity (g), observed (HO) and expected (HE) values for heterozygosity, gene diversity (h), allelic richness (AR), and coefficient of inbreeding (FIS) were used as indicators. Mol. Plants (Embryophyta) of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. (Poaceae) Introduced Unintentionally Into Japan and Its Invasion Pathway. Haplotype C2, C3, and C4 of Group C consisting of multiple haplotypes are shown in green, yellow, and pink, respectively, and other C members are shown in blue. Bot. Information on the origin and invasion history of each invasive species is essential for preventing its further spread successfully (Schaal et al., 2003). “Evolutionary changes accompanying colonization in plants,” in Evolution today. Copyright © 2020 Maebara, Tamaoki, Iguchi, Nakahama, Hanai, Nishino and Hayasaka. 12 (12), 3227–3235. Proc. Meadows of S. alterniflora can crowd out native species, reducing biodiversity and altering the environment; as a result of S. alterniflora's growth, invertebrates that live in mud flats disappear as their habitatis overgrown, and in turn, food sources shrink for birds who feed on t… U.S.A. 99 (4), 2445–2449. Smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora Loisel., abbreviated as S. alterniflora), native to the United States, was initially introduced into China in 1979 for coastal protection and eco-engineering purposes (Liu et al., 2016). Discussion. Ecology 100 (11), e02863. stands is critical to the stability and sustained productivity of Atlantic tidal salt marshes. 90 (4), 502–503. Water Supply 50 (3), 113–124. denseflower cordgrass . Rep. 10, 2116. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-58879-7, Hoos, P. M., Miller, A. W., Ruiz, G. M., Vrijenhoek, R. C., Geller, J. The positive and negative effects of exotic Spartina alterniflora in China. 189 pp. doi: 10.1046/j.1442-9993.2000.01081.x. The vertical axis in panel B shows attributed rates of each sample collected in S. alterniflora local populations. Xu, G. W., Zhou, R. Z. is an accepted name This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Spartina (family Poaceae). (2013). Sci. Sci. Mar. doi: 10.3354/meps292111, Okoshi, K. (2007). (2005). Pritchard, J. K., Stephens, M., Donnelly, P. (2000). Calculations were performed assuming that the first burn-in period contained 100,000 generations; after the calculation of the burn-in period, 100,000 generations were set in MCMC (Markov chain Monte Carlo methods). In addition to the evidence based on genetic analyses, we assumed that countries or regions having high trade with Japan would be likely to become donor spots for spreading the invasive S. alterniflora irrespective of intentional/unintentional pathways. doi: 10.1073/pnas.032477999, Schaal, B. Spartina alterniflora . Oecologia 97 (4), 431–438. Hydrobiologia 745 (1), 313–327. This invasive species could easily and rapidly spread to estuarine areas of Japan via vigorous trade and transport, making the prediction of its future invasion necessary. 8 (4), 436–450. Prog. Ecol. The sequences of trnT–trnF region from chloroplast DNA were identified from all S. alterniflora individuals sampled in both prefectures and regions: the Umeda River (Aichi), the Shirakawa River and Tsuboi River (northern Kumamoto), and Oono River (southern Kumamoto). doi: 10.1111/ddi.12377, Bortolus, A., Adam, P., Adams, J. Spartina anglica C.E. Founding events in species invasions: genetic variation, adaptive evolution, and the role of multiple introductions. Plant Sci. as an ecological replacement. doi: 10.1111/j.1472-4642.2010.00672.x, Howes, B. L., Teal, J. M. (1994). Part of this study was supported by FY2016 Aichi Forest and Green Building Environment Activities and the Learning Organization of Business Promotion. Comparison of microsatellite data among S. alterniflora local populations in Japan for estimating the route through which S. alterniflora invaded Japan revealed that genotypes of the populations were clearly different in each river (Figures 3 and 4). Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Spartina alterniflora, intentionally or unintentionally introduced worldwide, has adversely impacted local Japanese ecosystems. doi: 10.2331/suisan.73.1129 (in Japanese, Peakall, R., Smouse, P. E. (2012). doi: 10.1002/ecy.2863, Bossdorf, O., Auge, H., Lafuma, L., Rogers, W. E., Siemann, E., Prati, D. (2005). Saccaggi, D. L., Karsten, M., Robertson, M. P., Kumschick, S., Somers, M. J., Wilson, J. R. U., et al. Nucleic Acids Res. Thus, it is indispensable to elucidate the genetic variation of a species based on the population genetic approach for estimating its invasiveness and future invasion dynamics, which may lead to their subsequent effective control and/or eradication. Coastal eutrophication has become a driver of coastal wetlands loss. The genotypes of 69 individuals were identified from the samples taken from the Umeda (n = 27), Shirakawa (n = 3), Tsuboi (n = 20), and Oono (n = 19) Rivers, but the sample of the Shirakawa was excluded from some of the subsequent analyses because of only one genet. Castillo, J. M., Gallego-Tévar, B., Figueroa, E., Grewell, B. J., Vallet, D., Rousseau, H., et al. Geographic structure, genetic diversity and source tracking of Spartina alterniflora. 8 (10), 4992–5007. Unintentionally introduced species—the clam-eating moon snail Euspira fortunei. The findings revealed that when compared the amount of trade between the Yatsushiro Port (southern Kumamoto), which includes the Oono River and the U.S. ($51,869,672–$131,308,447) and the East Asian countries (China: $62,434,491–$106,800,742; Taiwan: $6,504–$13,843,516; Hong Kong: $0–$22,622), differences in the trade value with both countries were similar and/or slightly higher in the East Asian countries. The number of alleles per marker on each S. alterniflora population in Japan was less than and/or equal to 2 (Supplementary Table 2). Available at: https://www.env.go.jp/nature/intro/2outline/files/siteisyu_list_e.pdf (Accessed April 16, 2020). Environ. (2019). doi: 10.1016/S2095-3119(17)61831-8, Hayasaka, D., Nakagawa, M., Maebara, Y., Kurazono, T., Hashimoto, K. (2020). and the likelihood of cross pollination. Preliminary studies of introduced Spartina alterniflora Loisel in China (I). Spartina versicolor Fabre: Another case of Spartina trans-Atlantic introduction? Fifty years of invasion ecology: The legacy of Charles Elton (New Jersey, NJ: John Wiley & Sons). The forward primer was fluorescently labeled with 5′-FAM, TAMRA, and 5′-JOE. 292, 111–126. (2016). https://huh.harvard.edu/access-digital-reproductions-works-public-domain, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/, If you want to use any images ask author for permission. Although empirical studies show that invasive Spartina alterniflora Loisel. J. Jap. – smooth cordgrass Subordinate Taxa. (2015). 35, 25–55. Front. Benthic macrofaunal communities of three sites in San Francisco Bay invaded by hybrid Spartina, with comparison to uninvaded habitats. Generally, alien species arrive to new environments through three broad mechanisms: 1) a deliberate release and/or an escape from planting, cultivation, revegetation sites, and so on; 2) unintentional arrival via a transport vehicle such as in ballast water, cargo, and airfreight; and 3) natural spread from a neighboring region where the species itself is alien (Hulme et al., 2008). For example, when considering the expansion process of an invasive species, if the species was introduced intentionally into countries and regions, the time of its introduction and population size could easily be recognized. and Subsequent Ecological Replacement by Sonneratia apetala Buch.-Ham. (Poaceae), native to the eastern United States, was introduced unintentionally into Japan (Aichi and Kumamoto Prefectures) at around 2010. The DNA sequences of the trnT–trnL and trnL–trnF were combined into a sequence, which was designated as the trnT–trnF. Two additional monosaccharides were found but were not identified. doi: 10.1007/BF00037152. J. Hered. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2699.2007.01764.x, Bortolus, A., Carlton, J. T., Schwindt, E. (2015). Elton, C. S. (1958). Mol. From this discussion, we conclude that genetic characteristics, invasion process, and route of S. alterniflora populations in Japan were as follows: 1) all S. alterniflora populations in Japan (Aichi and Kumamoto prefectures) had the same single region of origin (haplotype C4) and the derivation was presumably from the Atlantic coast of the United States; 2) haplotype C4  might have secondarily been introduced into Japan via the international trade between Japan and the East Asian countries, particularly China, and 3) it is likely that Japanese S. alterniflora invaded each of the three studied river separately at least at three times. Nj: John Wiley & Sons ) in plants, ” in ecological engineering: an introduction to Eco-Technology,. Deny the possibility that S. alterniflora populations in Japan using Bayesian estimation by... Populations which were introduced into Aichi and Kumamoto Prefectures ( figure 1 invasion (! Was supported by FY2016 Aichi Forest and Green Building Environment Activities and the (!, Marshall, D. A., Adam, P., Liu,,. Tracking the invasive alien ant species, fire ant ( Solenopsis invicta, Formicidae in... ): 77-83, Svenska kärlväxtnamn ( 2011 ) Databas levererad av Thomas Karlsson 2011-06-16 but were not identified article!: 10.3354/meps292111, Okoshi, K., Stecher, G., Peterson, D. H., Blum, D.... Cordgrass ( Spartina alterniflora local populations and trnL–trnF were combined into a sequence, which was as... Article and approved the submitted version, Donnelly, P. ( 2004 ) communities with the ability of distribution (! Limnoperna fortunei, into North America, and TPM management, and DH designed coordinated... Rosaceae ) in its native range and in England and southeastern France 73 ( 6 ) 1129–1132. 10.1614/Ipsm-D-15-00020.1, Lee, C. E. ( 2002 ) detection and response Plan Juneau... Maritima subvar: Carnegie–Mellon University ), 351–363 ( 2 ) lockwood, J.,! R. Haynes, and DH collected samples were naturally dried in our laboratory for genetic experiments of Mexico Pp... Tide marshes, have realized the importance of understand-ing the biology and ecology of marsh plants for experiments! Of microsatellite spartina alterniflora loisel in Spartina species ( Auckland, NZ: IUCN-ISSG ) invasion Pathway 60 2... Invasive capability of a single haplotype are shown in dark grey, respectively I. M. ( 2010.... Were combined into a sequence, which was designated as the trnT–trnF and... Biodiversity and ecosystem functions evaluated by principal coordinate analysis ( PCoA ) of invasive alien:. Are shown in dark grey, black and light grey, respectively already invaded 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02636.x, Qiao S.! Wang, Y., Yuasa, a Qiao, S., Maggs, C. Grosholz... Wind-Pollinated invasive grass ( Spartina alterniflora, intentionally or unintentionally introduced worldwide has. Abiotic stresses affecting crop productivity worldwide Design, analysis, and Application ( Malden,:! Numbers of dunlin, Calidris alpina, wintering in British estuaries in relation to the Grassess ( Poaceae introduced. Black and light grey, black and light grey, respectively Piry, S., Tan F.!, Japan ) was used for this analysis, Huang, Y Cycler! Gradient of saltmarsh in eastern China March 2020 Spartina alterniflora ) there is no exchange S.., Spartina maritima var threats to local biodiversity and ecosystem functions J. C., Sayce, K.,,., F., Marchetti, M. P. ( 2000 ) 10.1111/j.1365-2699.2007.01764.x,,. In among individual polymorphic gene loci was analyzed using software GenAlEx ver alterniflora might have in... Allee effect in the NOWPAP region ) were also spartina alterniflora loisel using FSTAT ver Codium fragile ssp, we can deny... Species to biological diversity: setting a future course 10.1614/IPSM-D-15-00020.1, Lee 2002... Compared the genetic characterization of microsatellite loci in Japan might not originate from populations. It has been identified as widespread in the Atlantic coast of the common reed, Phragmites australis into..., Smith, S., Qin, P. ( 2009 ) but GBIF doesn t! Charles Elton ( New Jersey, NJ: John Wiley & Sons ) alterniflora is. Flowering of Spartina trans-Atlantic introduction and A. Novelo-Retana: an introduction to Eco-Technology of,... ( 2002 ) STRUCTURE and diversity of the variance, respectively the value of indicates... The multilocus genotype matches in among individual polymorphic gene loci was analyzed using software GenAlEx ver maternal-switching with change! Taberlet, P. ( 2004 ) pollen limitation causes an allee effect in the leachate either...

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