In 146 BC, the Greek peninsula, though not the islands, became a Roman protectorate.  However, Emporion lost its political independence around 195 BC with the establishment of the Roman province of Hispania Citerior and by the 1st century BC had become fully Romanized in culture.. Mithridates was finally defeated by Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great) in 65 BC. He also expanded the kingdom further east into Punjab, though these conquests were rather ephemeral. He had been a student of Callimachus and later became chief librarian (prostates) of the library of Alexandria. It led to a steady emigration, particularly of the young and ambitious, to the new Greek empires in the east. Macedon was no match for this army, and Perseus was unable to rally the other Greek states to his aid. How many Hellenistic Greek trade items can you find in your house? Greek emigres faced individual religious choices they had not faced on their home cities, where the gods they worshiped were dictated by tradition. On his ascension to the throne in 359 BCE, he realized that the old ways were no longer dependable. This famous writing will have an impact on mathematics for years to come. His son, Zipoetes I of Bithynia maintained this autonomy against Lysimachus and Seleucus I, and assumed the title of king (basileus) in 297 BC. This marked the end of Athens as a political actor, although it remained the largest, wealthiest and most cultivated city in Greece. In 317 BC, Cassander invaded Macedonia, attaining control of Macedon, sentencing Olympias to death and capturing the boy king Alexander IV, and his mother. After initial successes, he was forced to surrender to Seleucus in 285 BC and later died in captivity. A whole class of petty officials, tax farmers, clerks and overseers made this possible. Within roughly two decades after conquering Macedonia in 168 BC and Epirus in 167 BC, the Romans would eventually control the whole of Greece. Specific areas conquered by Alexander's invading army, including Egypt and areas of Asia Minor and Mesopotamia "fell" willingly to conquest and viewed Alexander as more of a liberator than a conqueror.. Ptolemy, a somatophylax, one of the seven bodyguards who served as Alexander the Great's generals and deputies, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexander's death in 323 BC. Athens retained its position as the most prestigious seat of higher education, especially in the domains of philosophy and rhetoric, with considerable libraries and philosophical schools. Antigonus's son Demetrius II died in 229 BC, leaving a child (Philip V) as king, with the general Antigonus Doson as regent. Up to two thirds of the population emigrated, and the Macedonian army could only count on a levy of 25,000 men, a significantly smaller force than under Philip II.. The use of this period is justified by the extent of the Hellenic culture in most of these areas, due to the Greek political presence especially in Asia after Alexander 's conquests, but also to a new wave of Greek colonization. Hellenistic religion, any of the various systems of beliefs and practices of eastern Mediterranean peoples from 300 bc to ad 300.. Macedonian king Alexander the Great led the biggest expansion conquests for the Greeks, establishing kingdoms in North Africa, Persia, the Middle East, right up to India in Southeast Asia.  Emporion contained a mixed population of Greek colonists and Iberian natives, and although Livy and Strabo assert that they lived in different quarters, these two groups were eventually integrated. In the aftermath, Philip formed the League of Corinth, effectively bringing the majority of Greece under his direct sway. The focus on the Hellenistic period over the course of the 19th century by scholars and historians has led to an issue common to the study of historical periods; historians see the period of focus as a mirror of the period in which they are living. The Hellenistic period was a good time for the Greeks – until the Romans conquered them in the 100s BC. It included a reading room and a collection of paintings. He then invaded Phoenicia, laid siege to Tyre, stormed Gaza and began building a fleet. The Hellenistic Period took place from 323 B.C. 323 BC-31BC), was comprised of gold. , Period of ancient Greek and Mediterranean history, "Greek world" redirects here. In spite of this shift, Hellenistic philosophy continued to influence these three religious traditions and the Renaissance thought which followed them.  Editions Errance, Paris, 2008, p. 299. As Egypt's first port city, it was the main grain exporter in the Mediterranean. It is probable that at this point the Greco-Bactrian kingdom split into several semi-independent regions for some years, often warring amongst themselves. Despite this, it is often considered a period of transition, sometimes even of decadence or degeneration, compared to the enlightenment of the Greek Classical era. Rome now demanded that the Achaean League, the last stronghold of Greek independence, be dissolved. Callimachus was extremely influential in his time and also for the development of Augustan poetry.
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